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  #1  
Old 03-15-2006, 03:43 PM
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Default The Immune System-Outline

Nonspecific Immune Defense (skin, mucus lining lungs, stomach acid)
FUNFACT tears: tears contain an antibacterial enzyme, lysozyme, that digests bacteria's peptidoglycan cell wall,)
the bacteria E. coli that lives in your large intestine--not only does it provide a main source of Vitamin K--competes with other harmful agents and prevents them from colonizing and causing disease
Complement proteins are secreted into the blood and prevent infection in a very general manner.
It binds to pathogens and attracts white blood cells (leukocytes) to destroy them by engulfing them (phagocytosis).
Some complement proteins work together to create a pore in the bacteria's plasma membrane, causing the cell to burst.
Phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages--three different types of leukocytes) engulf pathogens very generally.
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Old 03-15-2006, 03:59 PM
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Default Wow

Cool new facts.
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Old 03-15-2006, 04:18 PM
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Default Specific Immune Response: The Humoral Response

SPECIFIC IMMUNE RESPONSE (by lymphocytes)
BIGGEST CHALLENGE: The difference between self and nonself

HUMORAL RESPONSE
-by B cells (B cells are called B cells because they are made in the bone. T cells are called T cells because they are made in the thymus)
-create antibodies, also called immunoglobins
-B CELLS ARE VERY SPECIFIC-EACH TYPE OF ANTIBODY BINDS TO AND ATTACKS TO ONE TYPE OF ANTIGEN

THE ANTIBODY
-consists of a light chain and a heavy chain linked by disulfide bridges.
-both the heavy chain and the light chain consist of a variable region, whose makeup determine its antigen
-VARIABLE REGION-WHERE THE ANTIGEN BINDS TO THE ANTIBODY
-FIVE TYPES: IgA secreted in body linings, such as mucus membranes, IgE secreted in allergic responses, IgM and IgD are the ones found the B cells, IgM during infections, IgG found in blood.
-The immunoglobin genes go through recommbination (exchange of genetic material on the chromosomes)-->new immunoglobin gene with limitless possibilities (exception to the rule that all somatic cells contain the same genetic material)--> creation of new genes that express the variable regions of the antibody (B cells with immunoglobins targetted towards itself is removed)

-B cells, when sensing a pathogen, will divide into memory B-cells and plasma B-cells.
The humoral response: plasma cells become antigen factories--produce antibodies to kill the antigens

Memory b-cells--persist in circulation for a few years-->in case the same pathogen, or a similar pathogen invades the body, the reaction would be quicker. Rapid response
Therefore: VACCINES
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Old 03-15-2006, 04:49 PM
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Default The Cellular Response: T-cells

THE CELLULAR RESPONSE

2 different types of t-cells: cytotoxic t-cells and help t-cells.
-difference between humoral response and cellular response: cellular response is direct interaction b/w the cells instead of the release of antigens
-like b-cells, t-cells also have a wide variety of proteins expressed by t-cell receptors in membrane-->recognizes antigens on surfaces of other cells
-ANTIGEN HAS TO BE PRESENT AS PART OF A COMPLEX PROTEIN CALLED MHC (major histocompatibility complex) or HLA (human leukocyte antigens)

MHC Class I are present on surface of all cells and MHC II are present only on immune cells (leukocytes)
t-cell receptor binds to MHC I complex on cell membrane and destroys the cell

Macrophages digest antigen-->show MHC Class II complex at the cell surface-->Helper T-cells recognize it and reproduce-->stimukate B cells to proliferate into plasma cells

SELF RECOGNITION
Two types of MHC in human gene pool-one cannot recognize the other
Therefore: immune reaction against incompatible organ during organ transplation

FUN FACT: Rheumatoid arthritis is the autoimmune disease of the immune system attacking the proteins in the joints
Multiple sclerosis: autoimmune disease of the degenration of the myelin coating the neurons.

CONCLUSION: A keystone in the differentiation between self and non-self is the ability of the helper t cell to recognize its own MHC but still attack foreign, nonself MHC.
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